13 November 1990, the British scientist Tim Berners-Lee published the world’s first web page. It contained information about what constitutes the technology of the World Wide Web.
It is noteworthy that to create a scientist from the UK used a personal computer NeXT model of the company, which was founded by Steve jobs after leaving Apple.
Berners-Lee is considered the founding father of the Internet while working at the European organization for nuclear research (CERN), he proposed the concept of “world wide web” invented a way to access the hypertext data, the principles of which lie in modern Internet access.
Initially a scientist has developed a computer application for research laboratories and processing service data, and the program Enquire, which he wrote, was intended for exchange of scientific information within the organization. To exchange data, the researchers used available already then the TCP/IP Protocol, with its roots in military network of the US ARPANET. No one took the initiative Berners-Lee seriously, so their development scientist tested on a personal computer: created the world’s first web server, browser and editor pages. The modern standard spelling of the website address (URL) also refers to the number of his developments.
On 13 November 1907 the French engineer Paul Cornu became the world’s first helicopter pilot. Of course, no miracles in aviation test flight to be seen — the aircraft off the ground just 50 cm and hung in the air for 20 seconds. To maneuver the helicopter pilot was incredibly difficult.
By the way, the Root in the historic event was just a pilot, and before that I was only Cycling equipment, engines and small-displacement vehicles. The test helicopter was designed by the brothers Louis and Jacques Breguet in conjunction with Professor Charles richer. The French failed to make a helicopter controllable, so his invention they soon abandoned for better times.
Managing to spin a bit later invented the Aviator of the Russian Empire Boris Yuriev — swash became a breakthrough technology in aviation and has finally made it possible for tilt and vertical movement of helicopters.
In the future, the structure of the helicopter tried to improve Russian designer Igor Sikorsky. For a long time, the creation of aircraft that would remain manageable by the pilot in the cockpit was an impossible task. The experimental model of the Sikorsky (VS-300) flew a few meters off the ground in 1939, but the project required considerable modifications and in 1942, was closed to become the Sikorsky R-4 Hoverfly was the first production helicopter.
Newest helicopters above-mentioned disadvantages do not possess: in 2005, the French test pilot Didier del’sal ‘ went up in a helicopter to the highest point of the planet — Everest (8850 meters above sea level). And in 2009, a group of Russian pilots flew across the Atlantic by helicopter Robinson 44 pilots conquered the distance of over 5000 km, passing through the ocean and mountainous countryside up to a height of 4500 m on production helicopters.
13 November 1946, scientists have made artificial snow falling from the clouds. To this period have accumulated two meteorological discoveries. American chemist Bernard Vonnegut invented the silver iodide (AgI), which caused crystallization of the water in the clouds and provoked the falling snow. And his colleague Vincent Schaefer achieved the same effect by using dry ice — after spraying this mixture over the mountains of Eastern Massachusetts cloud woke up to snow and mankind has learned to tame the atmospheric processes.
However, the most active opponents of the clouds remained Russian — suppression of rainfall over Moscow during the holidays traces its history back to the 1980-ies, when it created a special city service to reduce precipitation at the time of the demonstrations in the city. A few years later these skills came in handy already under tragic circumstances — in the course of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a detachment of meteorolites (converted in a special way an-12BP “Cyclone”, as well as Tu-16 “Cyclone-N”) helped to prevent the deposition of rain in the nearby river and reservoir. An-12 was treated with cumulonimbus clouds in the 30 km radius exclusion zone, and the Tu-16 was affected by the atmospheric phenomena of the stratosphere.
Planes sprayed the special tea mixture with powdered silver iodide, and sometimes… cement grade 600, which also proved to be an effective means of dealing with rainfall. A former Tu-16 in service meteorologists suppressed convective clouds using air jets — thus, the cloud was destroyed after hitting dry air from the external environment.
Soviet pilots and meteorologists have struggled with radiation from may 18 until the end of 1986.
Read more •••
Video of the day. Feed her baby the woman was kicked out of the Tretyakov gallery