In 2014 the Dutch artist Dimuth Strebe together with the American laboratory 3D bioprinting brothers Vacanti printed ear of Vincent van Gogh from sucrose and cells taken from a great-grandson of the brother of the artist. This artwork was one problem — sucrose is very rapidly destroyed. Strebe began searching for alternative technologies that would allow it to create a more durable project on the border of science and art, and turned with his idea to the Russian laboratory 3D Bioprinting Solutions, a subsidiary of the company “Invitro”. “We refused to print the ear, because that would have been second in that, — says Director and co-owner of the laboratory of Yousef Hasani. — Then she offered us an even more fantastic project to make handbags for Barbie dolls from printed on our 3D printer of the skin. But we realized that to solve these problems, we would have to give up the whole lab, so the project did not take place”.
Mouse with artificial thyroid
By the time the laboratory 3D Bioprinting Solutions have existed for more than a year. After graduating from the 6th year of medical University, Hasani partners and I decided to do medical business and opened the first laboratory “Invitro” franchise. “We have opened several offices in Moscow, and then came up with “Invitro. Town” for towns with population from 50 000 to 100 000 people and presented it to the owner of “Invitro” Alexander Ostrovsky — says Keswani. We tested our hypothesis in Kabardino-Balkaria and in the Krasnodar region and sold this network “in vitro”, leaving himself a few spots.”
Knowing that Haswani scientific background related to the scope of regenerative medicine, Ostrovsky asked him to do bioprinting under the guidance of the scientist, one of the pioneers of the region, Vladimir Mironov. “I said I would agree only in that case if I’m on a par with Alexander Yurievich to risk your money,” he says. Hasani invested in the creation of the laboratory 3D Bioprinting Solutions, along with five other investors. Their names are not disclosed.
“Technology of three-dimensional bioprinting is one of the most expected for today. Their task — restore the lost function of a particular organ and the incredibly difficult task of availability of organs for transplantation, — says General Director and founder of the “Invitro” Alexander Ostrovsky. Today in China alone, more than a million people are on the waiting list. In the US, not waiting their turn for a transplant die every day 20 people. And according to our assessment, the first bio-printers will appear in the clinics in the next 10-15 years.”
In 2014, in the laboratory 3D Bioprinting Solutions has created a printer FABION, which today remains one of the best in the world in print accuracy: X and Y, it reaches five microns, Z axis — 10. For comparison, the size of skin cells — fibroblast — equal to seven microns.
In 2015 on this printer, scientists were able to print the thyroid gland from mouse embryonic cells and collagen. The organ has been transplanted mouse and stuck through it sprouted vessels, which were to nourish the cells with oxygen. After transplantation of the thyroid gland beginning to produce hormones, it has proved its functional activity.
The technology of the laboratory is the isolation and cultivation of cells of a particular tissue. The scientists added cells in a special gel of agar-agar where the cells coalesce into spheroids at 4000-8000 pieces. Such a spheroid can be seen with the naked eye: it size is comparable to the diameter of three human hairs. Then out of these cells bio-printer prints on.
But to print a human organ that can be transplanted to the patient, much more difficult. Cells in adults are divided very bad, because they have a certain regenerative capacity. In 2014 a Japanese Professor Shinya Yamanaka, the year he received the Nobel prize because he managed to lead the cell into an embryonic state by activating four of the gene in the cell of an adult organism. The cell has received the name of IPS, and now scientists in different countries are trying to obtain from it the cells of various tissues. For example, in the world today from two laboratories trying to make IPS cells material for thyroid gland, and one even achieved a certain success: the resulting cells looked like the cells of the thyroid gland, but doesn’t produce the necessary hormones.
In addition, a single universal printing technologies for all agencies does not exist. “Flat organs, such as skin or cartilage, can be printed on a 3D printer, such as FABION, explains Keswani. — However, if we need to print something in the operating room directly to the skin defect, then this technology is not suitable. In this case, we can use the robotic arm: this is a less accurate technology, but allows you to win time and to print the desired angle. But if we want print tubular constructs, for example, vessels that do this on a Cartesian printer would be difficult: imagine the leaning tower of Pisa, our construct will be just as filled up, because the cells lose stability under the action of gravity. So they are not collapsed and the construct was always in limbo, you must use magnetic field”.
The original solution to this problem is found at the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands, where engineers create electromagnets with a capacity of 32 Tesla. The hours of operation of these magnets is 8000 euros, but the cost of conducting three experiments of the Russian scientists took on the Dutch government.
An alternative to the magnets was the use of the microgravity environment in space. There are perfect conditions, knowing that it is possible to calculate a mathematical model for printing of a hollow or tubular organ. “From the point of view of mathematical modeling it is easier to use, of course, such ideal conditions are not selected with the use of magnets because magnets make a noise,” — explains Keswani.
In 2017, the engineers at 3D Bioprinting Solutions has collected the first magnetic bio-printer “Organ. Ed” and a year later, on 11 October 2018, sent him to the ISS on a rocket “Soyuz-МС10”. The missile, however, fell in the second minute of flight from a height of 80 km. the Printer was in a vehicle compartment, however, the magnets in the fall was not injured. And after a couple of months, December 3, 2018 to the ISS went printer parallel with six samples of the thyroid gland of the mouse and six samples of cartilage of man. First printed in space, the organ samples returned to Earth in late December.
Transplanted printed in space bodies is impossible: on Earth they managed to deliver only in special fixation solution, which makes the cell unviable. For implantation of printed cells need a special bioreactor systems that maintain cells in a living state. “Unfortunately, in the Russian segment of the ISS such systems do not exist, continues the laboratory. — Therefore now we write a program in conjunction with NASA. It will be a mutually advantageous cooperation: they have a bioreactor system, but no bio-printer, and we have a bio-printer, but there is no bioreactor”.
About organ transplant in space speech does not go yet, says Keswani. The thyroid gland of the mouse has a size of about 3 mm, and in conditions when it all flies in the state of weightlessness, to get her animal difficult. But in the future it will be possible.
The flight following cell into space is scheduled for August 23: the ISS will go 42 cuvettes with different protein crystals, synthetic and biological materials and bacteria. And in September, the orbit will take the cells obtained from the gum of rabbit and cells of cows, which will try to print meat. Now these cells undergo preflight tests, launch is scheduled for September 25.
Printed in space meat is much more expensive than usual. The bio-printer is printing conditional steak from specially grown cells, in 2011 a kilogram of these cells, excluding the cost of printing, cost over a million dollars. Now the printed price of a kilogram of meat is around $10 000, says Keswani. “If on Earth a kilo of meat for the money nobody wants, then the space is cheap”, — says Keswani. Deliver the food to astronauts into orbit is very expensive. According to Roscosmos, the greater part of the cargo spacecraft is food, and the ascent to orbit one kilogram of goods costs an average of $40 000-50 000.
Today, the laboratory does not sell commercial products and earns nothing, existing on money of investors and grants of the scientific funds. 3D Bioprinting Solutions received a grant from “SKOLKOVO” 23 million rubles and the Russian science Foundation grant, which amounts to about 3 million rubles a year. “It’s not big money, but a certain status, recognition by the scientific community, says the founder of the lab. Therefore, we do not consider our colleagues as competitors and actively share their experience. We, for example, is very flattering when MIT sends students to us for training”.
The biggest item of expenditure of the laboratory of cell material, explains the scientist. According to him, only the cells needed to restore the human liver will cost $1.2 million Herself the lab receives cells for free thanks to scientific cooperation with more than 30 laboratories around the world.
By 2023, the laboratory needs to recoup the investment of $10 million On a plan of Haswani the lab there are three models of monetization: selling printer, selling consumables, selling printing services. Last can buy, for example, pharmaceutical companies to conduct toxicology testing of drugs. “What we’re dealing with “Authority. Auto“ to the ISS is B2S, that is the business of science, he says. — We want to provide our capabilities to universities and to cooperate with different space agencies that will be able to assume part of the costs”.
Some commercial products have already pass the stage of testing. For example, viscous collagen for printing, called Viscoll, buyers which can be the same lab. Samples have already been sent to 20 laboratories in different countries.
“In the early’ 90s, the development of magnets for MRI was about as fantastic as what we are. But when technology organ printing comes to medicine, it will be a real breakthrough, and companies that deal with them, will become unicorns” — said Youssef of Hasani. According to the official statement of the International society of biofabrication (ISBF), made in 2014, it will happen most likely until 2030.
25 ideas that changed the world
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Professor at Clark University, Robert Hutchings Goddard in his childhood was reading “the War of the worlds” wells. Becoming a physicist, he devoted much of his professional life to the development of the mathematical theory of combustible rocket fuel. Goddard believed that such engines would make space flight a reality. He tested the theory in 1926, launching the first rocket in the suburbs of Auburn, Massachusetts. The rocket engine working on liquid fuel and was installed in the nose of the rocket. A three-metre rocket rose only 6.5 meters, but this low flight was the first huge step in space exploration.
In fifteen years, the American student of Filo Taylor Farnsworth introduced his teacher of chemistry project on the electronic transmission of images over a distance. Four years later, he invented a cathode ray tube to create images ― vacuum tube which directs an electron beam on a phosphor screen, causing it to glow. In 1927 he was the first to pass a fully electronic, image ― horizontal line. The last years of his life, Farnsworth was involved in research in nuclear fusion and worked on missile guidance systems, but humanity is still largely appreciates his first invention.
Having worked during the First world war in field hospitals, Alexander Fleming gave his all to finding cures for the treatment of infections, which kills more soldiers than bullets and shells. One day, putting things in order, Fleming discovered that in unwashed Petri dish mold killed Staphylococcus bacteria. The invention of penicillin Fleming in 1945 was awarded the Nobel prize.
Sir Frank whittle, while still a cadet school of the Royal air force, wrote a work which radically changed the future of aircraft construction. Whittle predicted that the system turbines and compressed air, which works on the basis of gas fuel, will make you forget about the planes with the propeller engine. He patented this system in 1930 and devoted the next decade to raise the car up in the air. In 1941, conducted the first test flight with a jet engine. It has a top speed of 600 km/h.
Young publisher Allen lane in 1934, he had his girlfriend writer Agatha Christie, returning from a Devon home to London. The train was late, to deal with lane was nothing, and in the small station store, a seller of press and books, there was nothing that could be read on the road — on the shelves were just reprints of classic novels of the nineteenth century and magazines. It was then that enterprising lane decided to create a publishing house that specializing in production of high quality, but interesting to the General reader of contemporary literature. To sell books, however, was not only in bookshops but also in railway stations, and even in tobacco shops. At the same cost they were not more expensive than a pack of cigarettes, that is, six pence.
Within a year, lane established the publishing house Pinguin has released a series of ten books — novels of Agatha Christie, Ernest Hemingway, and andré Maurois. The new series has been published once in three months and enjoyed crazy popularity, turning the book publishing business.
Pulse code modulation
The idea of Alec H. Reeves opened the digital era. While working as an engineer at International Telephone & Telegraph, Reeves invented a communication system that could transform analog signal into digital (relatively speaking in ones and zeros), sent it via normal phone lines and at the other end restored the original analog signal. Such a system allows signals to travel long distances without distortion. Years later pulse code modulation was the basis of fiber-optic and satellite communications, mobile and Internet telephony, CD players.
The scheme of the first computer John V. Atanasoff, an American of Bulgarian origin, scribbled on a napkin after a party with whiskey and drive at 100 miles per hour. Construction trehsotmillionnogo device the size of a Desk was completed in 1942. Development scientist have been implemented in the computer ENIAC, although its supremacy was officially recognized only in 1973. The main ideas of the Atanasoff still used in all computers: this is a regenerative memory, binary arithmetic, logic elements combining to create an electronic adder.
For four August days the United States dropped on Japan two atomic bombs, killing more than 200,000 people. These explosions marked the end of world war II and opened the nuclear age. In 1957, earned a nuclear reactor in Shippingport (PA), supplying electricity to Pittsburgh area. But the triumphant March of nuclear power in the United States stopped after the accident nuclear power plant on the island Three Mile, in 1979.
An employee of Bell Labs D. H. Ring figured out how to deploy the mobile network in each small area (cell) to place the transceiver. The introduction of new technology disrupted the Federal communications Commission of the United States, limiting the range of radio frequencies that are allowed to use mobile phones. Only 20 years later managed to eliminate the interference: in 1968, the FCC reconsidered its decision.
Working under the direction of William B. Shockley at Bell Labs, John Bardeen and Walter H. Brattin noticed that when crystal Germany serves the electrical signals, the output signal is more powerful than the input. This discovery made a revolution in electronics, allowing transistors to replace bulky vacuum tubes and mechanical relays, and produced all subsequent achievements in the field of semiconductors and integrated circuits. All three inventors received the Nobel prize in physics in 1956.
Peter Carl Goldmark loved music. But the cellist and pianist, a native of Budapest, hated the short record on vinyl, which was featured at a speed of 78 rpm. Had to become an inventor. He slowed the speed to 33 and 1/3 revolutions per minute, which doubled the recording time, and the disks began to do not from shellac ― a natural resin, and synthetic vinyl polymer, which can tightly cause grooves. LPS has given impetus to the music industry, they recorded the whole part of classical works.
Credit card Diners Club
Businessman Frank McNamara loved to lend money at interest to small companies. In 1950 he introduced the first U.S. credit card ― Diners Club. Today the total “plastic” debt of Americans is $700 billion
Wilson Greatbatch accidentally inserted the wrong resistor into the equipment that monitored heart rate. The device began to emit pulses that copied the rhythm of the heart. After Greatbatch decided on the design of the new device, he made 50 pacemakers in their own barn. Over time, the device was tested on dogs and then on humans.
First was modem. Without it there would be the Internet. Originally developed for data exchange in the system of North American air defense Modulator-Demodulator allowed computers to communicate by converting the data into analog signal that can be transmitted over the telephone line. Bell 103, the first commercial model AT&T, was released 40 years ago and could transmit data at 300 bits per second. Today modems for cable lines transmit millions of bits per second.
The Arpanet, which was conceived as a means of communication of the scientists who worked on the American armed forces, began with the connection terminals of Stanford and University of California, Los Angeles. Later the national science Foundation was built on the basis of this technology, the network with more capacity, which to this day remains a part of the Internet. Gradually losing its military significance and becoming more kommerzialisierung, Arpanet turned into the Internet.
The World Wide Web
Programmer Tim Berners-Lee developed Enquire, a program that brings together system links documents from different computers all over the world. It was the first step into cyberspace. Next step: in 1993, mark Andreessen wrote the program Mosaic, which allowed us to display not only text, but images. And in two year easy to use the Netscape browser turned walking Network in entertainment for millions. And he beat a track for the new boom in the stock market. So, do you think that the Internet has changed our lives forever?
Physicist and music lover, James T. Russell is desperate to improve the sound of their eclipsing records. Working in the lab Battlescape memorial center in Richland (Washington), he’s smart enough to digitize music and record it using the flashes of light on a photosensitive disk. Then the computer will be able to read music without physical contact and will not wear and scratches. The first CD was the size of a long-playing record, but Russell continued to develop the technology CD-ROM (read-only memory) currently used not only for music but for DVD movies and computer programs. Now annually produces more than 3 billion discs.
UNIX and C language
This operating system for computers and the programming language that is still used worldwide. Researchers from Bell Labs, Dennis Ritchie and Kenneth Thompson proposed based on a simple commands system, running on machines of different models and supports the work of many users: one person can check the spelling, while another creates a document. Programming in C language made possible the creation of thousands of applications. On UNIX running most Internet servers and large scale enterprise systems.
Liquid crystals, with properties both of solid and liquid, were discovered in 1888 by Austrian botanist Friedrich Reinitzer. The practical application they found 80 years later when two teams of scientists from RCA Labs and Kent State University independently from each other, driving the crystal with the electric charge, created the first liquid-crystal indicators. First LCD displays appeared in hours, but in 1984, their resolution has increased so much that they were able to display not only text, but images. Thus began the market of portable computers. The result: users are no longer tied to one workplace.
The first sort of prototype of today’s smartphone was presented on 23 November 1992 by the company IBM. In 1994 IBM Simon went on sale. In August 1996, Nоkia released the Nokia 9000 Communicator. In terms of functionality it is not inferior to PDAs, with it you can call, but the function of installing third party apps were missing. A real breakthrough in the world of smartphones became the mobile of Ericsson Ericsson R380s, released in 2000. Further development was rapidly: soon manufacture smartphones and operating systems for them have launched such giants as Microsoft and Google, and in mid-2007, Apple released the iPhone a candy bar.
E Ink produces displays in the form of a thin plastic sheet that contains tiny bubbles that are filled with liquid with black and white particles has been more than a decade. One of the founders of E Ink Joseph Jacobson, a Professor of laboratory of media of Massachusetts Institute of technology, in 1997 together with two of his students discovered that when current is applied, the bubbles rotate, changing color. Change in millions of bubbles on a flexible “electronic paper” to create the appearance of text written in ink. In this case, the electronic paper consumes much less power than LCD displays, and much more similar to ordinary paper.
Gradually, the “electronic paper” E Ink became more efficient in terms of energy consumption and output, which has increased the demand for technology. But by 2003, the company ran out of money. Differences in ink color are on different worksheets, and problems with contrast did not allow the product to pass strict quality control from Sony. In April 2004, the technology of E Ink received from Sony welcome to the introduction into mass production. It was an important step. Although the company still generated a loss, in 2005, the revenues increased from the minimum level from nearly $4 million Under the leadership of Wilcox E Ink started negotiations with many potential customers including Amazon, the biggest online merchant of books and other goods.
E Ink prepared a display for Motorola phone, for device USB of Lexar and made a display for hours. E Ink has identified about 700 kinds of devices that use its technology, ranging from power tools battery (display shows the charge level) and ending with the car keys (the display shows the fuel level in the tank or location of a vehicle in the Parking lot). “The main purpose is still — screens for e-readers, but the spectrum has expanded considerably,” says Wilcox.
The sequencing of the human genome
Using 300 high-speed DNA-decoding, the guru of genetic engineering George. Craig Venter stunned the scientific world. His company Celera Genomics deciphered the full human genome for two years, spending on research total $270 million to Another team of scientists, funded from the state budget, it took 13 years and $2.5 billion Studying genetic differences between people, scientists will be able to better diagnose and ultimately cure diseases such as diabetes and schizophrenia.
The working group of the international organization IEEE (Institute of Electronical Engeneers) under the leadership of Stuart Kerry has developed a series of standards for wireless computer networks Wi-Fi. This allowed the “chat” technology from different manufacturers. In 2002 began the boom of the year sales of devices with Wi-Fi in the world increased four times and reached $280 million
Facebook and YouTube
4 February 2014 social network Facebook turned ten years old. To round date, the company came in perfect shape in service and learned how to make on mobile devices and its shares are at their peak since the IPO in may 2012. The success of the world’s largest social network Facebook has become a springboard for a whole cohort of young Internet companies, against which industry giants like Google and Yahoo look ancient old men. Young, hungry for success entrepreneurs straddled the new wave boom of mobile devices and people’s desire to communicate online. As a result, the founders of WhatsApp messenger, microblogging service Twitter and the online storage Dropbox suddenly became billionaires.
YouTube was first launched in 2005 and since then he has changed the lives of most young (and not only) people all over the world. Let’s be honest: the viewing of videos, ranging from news and ending is stupid and useless, has become one of the cults of the 21st century.
The large hadron Collider
The large hadron Collider is perhaps the most ambitious project, instigated for the sake of pure science, and certainly the greatest mechanism ever built by man. 23 Nov 2009 in the 27-kilometer tunnel of the Collider produced the first successful collision of colliding beams of protons. From the start of construction up to this point it has been almost 10 years.
TANK long harnessed, but he went quickly: by mid-December managed to bring a full-energy collisions of two proton beams to a record of 2.36 TeV. While that TANK is just another technological achievement, but it portends a real scientific discoveries.
Rectangle search lines on the white background of the web page — most know the Google brand so. The company, founded in the late 1990-ies, for a couple of decades completely conquered the Internet. Today it is not just a search engine, but also email, and social network and advertising platform, and much more. However, the online world Google was not enough. For several years, the company is trying to penetrate the offline life of users. And not without success: its Android operating system is on the majority of smartphones in the world. But this is only the tip of the iceberg. In the bins at Google there are still many offline technologies which can amaze the world. Some of them are ready to appear on store shelves in the coming months, others only a few years. One such technology become Google Glass — smart eyewear that performs three functions: augmented reality, mobile communication and Internet video diary. In January 2015, six months after the start of sales, the production of the Goggle Glass was suspended.
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