Bald men in gray and faceless uniforms, lined up in a chain headed in a spacious hall, where a huge screen man with glasses already broadcasts the audience about unity and creating a garden of pure ideology. This zombie idyll violates a girl in bright clothes and strong — willed, full of energy and determination — she runs straight to the “talking head” with a hammer at the ready. Trying to stop the guards, but the character spins the weapon and hurls it at the screen, and destructive feat from this effect brightens white light all present.
Described the episode worthy of Orwell’s dystopia “1984”, and in a sense it is. This is the story of the commercials, dubbed in honor of the famous novel by British writer and filmed by Director Ridley Scott, who at that time had already introduced the world to the “Alien” and “blade Runner”. The advertisement was shown on 22 January 1984 during the popular in USA super bowl (final match of American football). And exactly two days later, on the 24th of, Apple released the product that was supposed to show “why 1984 won’t be like “1984”” the first Macintosh computer.
A new sort of “apples”
The Macintosh project began not with Steve jobs as he could to think of some, and with Jeff Raskin, the 31st employee of Apple. In 1979, he assembled a team of six people to work on a new computer. Ruskin not only managed to get around to jobs’, his ego and reputation, but also to obtain the necessary funding at the Executive level. Journalist Steven levy in his book Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer that Changed Everything, told what Ruskin has provided a powerful vision of the computer, whose legacy would be low cost, high utility and innovative friendly.
For about a year of his leadership he chose the name for the computer after his favorite variety of apples, and gathered all the ideas and documentation in the so-called Book of Macintosh and created all necessary conditions for comfortable work of the staff. At the same time Steve jobs was working on a different personal computer Lisa. It was named after the daughter of the founder of Apple, which, unfortunately, could not be saved from commercial failure. Business customers are reluctant to buying a computer for a low ratio quality/price (the initial price of the Lisa in 1983 amounted to $9999, which is equivalent to almost $25100 in 2018).
However, until the advent of the computer market jobs suspended the project, and he almost instantly switched to the development of Ruskin, which has for some time watched. Jobs ‘ attention was drawn to the fact that Macintosh had to get innovative design and at the same time to combine the low cost of production, like the Apple II with the computing power of the Motorola 68000 processor in the Lisa.
“It was clear that the Macintosh was the most interesting thing about Apple and Steve jobs decide to engage them,” recalled Raskin.
That jobs was a bad character, Apple knew everything. And Ruskin experienced it for yourself: two minds could not find a common language, constantly engaging in disputes and criticizing the decisions of each other. Relations between them were strained to such an extent that Raskin left the team in 1981, and a year later and said goodbye to Apple. Jobs gained full control over the project.
The city’s new Sheriff
Macintosh, on the vision of Steve jobs, was supposed to be the best version of Lisa, so much he turned against his previous project. Usually, companies quietly working on two or several projects in parallel. But the suspension was hit hard on the ego of a perfectionist, and he poured oil on the fire, turning the competition into a real feud between the two teams. Along the way, he was looking for breakthrough solutions for Macintosh
One of these was the graphical interface. It jobs and several Apple engineers peeked at the research center Xerox PARC in December 1979. Learning about innovative technology GUI, they agreed to see computer development tools Xerox Alto and Smalltalk in exchange for Apple stock options for shares. The company in the future, of course, used seen the concept, but many elements were created by the developers themselves. Other features of the computer has become a one-button mouse and the lack of arrows on the keyboard, which is significantly different from the Macintosh from the main competitor in the face of the IBM PC.
The final Macintosh design is closer to jobs ideas than Raskin’s vision, signed Andy Herzfeld, senior software architect Mac OS. Then, by the way, the first operating system does not have an official name. Apple started to use Macintosh System Software only in 1987, but the Mac OS as the term appeared in 1996 with the release of version 7.6.
Macintosh went on sale on 24 January and was known as the Apple Macintosh. More its name, Macintosh 128K, by which it is known now, the computer was in September of the same year, when the company released a model of the Macintosh 512, whose memory has been increased four times in comparison with the original. Advertising campaign (Apple for $2.5 million repurchased all page advertisement in two issues of Newsweek magazine), coupled with the low price and the above-mentioned features is fully justified. By April 1984 the company sold 50 thousand Macintosh, by early may the number had increased to 70 thousand, and in December reached 250 thousand (thus the Apple to the end of the year, has shipped to stores 270 thousand computers).
But the success didn’t last forever. A year later, sales fell sharply Macintosh, and Apple lost its market leadership. The reason for that became the Macintosh shortcomings, including the lack of a fan causing overheating, inconvenience one drive and a small number of programs and utilities. Jobs tried to rectify the situation, but the number of ambiguous solutions (gloomy is “Lemmings” and setting emulation Macintosh Lisa) led to the departure of several key members of the Macintosh team. Later, co-founder of Apple he will leave the company and return home only after 12 years. What about the ruler’s Macintosh, despite a number of difficulties in the future, its release will be one of the main trends of the “Apple” of the Corporation.
Read more •••