One of the most prominent and popular Italian writers, Alessandro Baricco, author of the novels “Silk”, “1900. The legend of the pianist”, “the ocean” and others, published a book of essays “The Game. Game” in which he reflects on the generation born in the Internet age and mobile communication, when the figure not only rapidly equalizes the representatives of different strata of society (the face of Facebook-sracha all equal), but also blurs the very concept of the human person. Than these people differ from their parents, as we approach the processing of information and solving problems, and why their behavioral algorithms are often similar to the algorithms of the passing game? In Russian the book “The Game. The game” is published in the publishing house “Colibri”. With the permission of the publishing house “Tape.ru” publishes the text, showing the progress of the digital revolution.
• For four years, there are three Personal Computer that passed a long test and literally shorted the market, turning the weapon of the elite in the subject that you could make at home, even if you’re not a genius and not a Professor at Stanford University: PCBM, Commodor 64 and Apple Mac. Now their appearance seems to us supremely wretched, and miserable, but at the time, they looked even elegant, in any case, it is quite inviting to him.
Of the three Mac had a relatively lesser commercial success, but was brilliantly conceived. It was first used graphic resolution and organization of material, clear even to an idiot: there was the program to the letter, opened the window, the junk thrown in the trash — gestures, phenomena, people have long been familiar. On the monitor slipping, sliding across the table a strange thing called a Mouse.
It is clear that from the day the sign of equality between intellectual work and boredom it was impossible just to put. ZOOM. It is impossible to understand the importance of what happened, if for a moment to think about the letter P from the combination of the PC. Personal. Now that everyone has a computer, goes without saying, but you should not forget that only forty years ago, it seemed insane. Computers already existed for many years, but it was a huge monster, they had data labs the very few organizations that are designed mainly to suppress or demonstrate superiority in one form or another. To think that one of them will be in the house on the Desk, could only inveterate dreamer. (…)
• In 1981 was published the SMTP of the first transmission Protocol electronic messages, which simplified the procedure led to a dizzying proliferation of e-mail [thirty years later, in 2012, we, the people of the planet sent 144 billion messages a day: three quarters of this number are spam]. The first email, to be precise, was sent many years ago, in 1971, ray Tomlinson, a thirty year old American who studied in new York engineering. Enter “dog”, printing the @ symbol — also his idea, as I found out.
IMPORTANT. Mail passed from one computer to another through, so to speak, invisible wires, the existence of which ordinary people in those days did not even suspect, and the people knowledgeable, they were called the Internet. (…)
• Comes to the surface and is no longer hidden digital wave, stopusa world: a commercially available first CDs, i.e. music recording, transferred to digital format and saved on storage media the size of a small saucer. On the market they were released by Philips and Sony, i.e. the Netherlands and Japan. First received in the sale of CD-ROM, which is quite inexplicable, were recorded extremely ugly music: “an Alpine Symphony” by Richard Strauss. [But the first CD of popular music recording ABBA.]
• Another important stage in the subsequent digitization of the world: behind the music — image. There is the first fully digital camera. It produces Fuji — firm, of course, Japanese.
• English specialist in the field of information technology Tim Berners-Lee launched the world wide web and changed the world. This is undoubtedly a historic moment. A good half of the world in which we live is born in this moment, and I will not give up their words, even if the next day, the Cobwebs will be swept away and replaced by something better [this is actually happening]. In the invention of the Web involved the movement of thought, which in a short time will become habitual for the brain billion human beings: along with a couple of other remarkable moves this movement will form the basis of our new civilization. So focus. Solemnly prepared brackets: good reception to sort it out. At least for me it was so.
I think we should start with a message that you don’t like: the Internet and the Web are two different things. You know, it’s painful but listen to me. The Internet was born before the Web, much earlier. I’ll try to explain how it happened.
It all started during the cold war because of American military paranoia: how they communicate with each other so that the Tips do not poke your nose. Over it began to work and found in the sixties almost brilliant solution, which was called ARPANET: in practice, they were able to connect some of their computers that are physically very remote from each other, allowing them to engage in a dialogue by establishing a system for the packaging of data, hitherto not existed, and thus building a sort of armored outline: within it the computers could exchange information without the Communists could feed at least some hope to penetrate in there and read the message.
It all happened, I should add, for a ridiculously short time. Press the button, and your message at the same moment is delivered to the recipient. Well, maybe not at the same moment, but one way or another with dizzying speed.
So, if not to focus on the Communist threat, you can immediately notice that such a decision opens up incredible horizons, far beyond the military context. Some American universities are involved in developing the ARPANET, drew attention to this, perfected the technology and used it to connect the computers of their employees.
20 October 1969 from a computer UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) was a message sent in real time under Stanford University (San Francisco), slipped 550 kilometers in the blink of an eye. The message, however, was only half delivered, but the problem was quickly fixed, and at the second attempt everything went well. So much so that they created their own circuit and began to use it, connecting all of your computers. Send, say, emails (now we call them e-mail). But also a whole bunch of research. Or books. Or there is the jokes you can imagine. Anyway, a good thing.
It so happened that many other universities, large enterprises and even the state realized a fantastic usefulness this thing and set their own contours by linking together all your computers. Let’s call a spade a spade: they set up their network. Each institution it was his own, and each network functioned differently, according to its own rules, subject to its own mechanism. It was noncommunicating vessels. Like different languages. Nothing would have happened and you still would have sucked mark, if in 1974, two American computer specialist not come up with a Protocol that allows you to engage in a dialogue of global networks of any size, magically linking them together. Almost were simultaneous interpreter on a planetary scale: everybody spoke in any language, only in what he pleases, but Protocol instantly translate the speech.
Beautiful name he was not allowed [engineers after all…], but such as it is, remember still is TCP/IP. This invention has blurred the lines between the various existing networks in order to achieve the amazing result was firsthand of the great world network, and now everyone calls her the Internet.
Was the seventies, and — most importantly — all this was a ridiculously small number of people. (…) That’s why none of this gets in the us described the backbone of the digital revolution: I have already said that the aim of such descriptions is to register the moments when the tremors come to the surface, significantly changing people’s lives.
In our history, this moment comes only in 1990. Tim Berners-Lee, the Englishman who worked at CERN in Geneva, invented this thing called the Web. [Old Europe first appears in this story, all the characters which — I stress, all — Americans, mostly from California. Should add for completeness that Berners-Lee invented the Web, working on the American system: the one was called NEXT, and was produced by the company, located in California; it is curious to remember the name of its founder — Steve jobs.] (…)
In 1991, in the world there was only one web site: web site Berners-Lee.
A year later, the people of good will have opened nine more.
In 1993 they became 130.
In 1994-m — 2 738.
In 1995, m-23, 500.
In 1996-m — 257 601.
Now, when I write this line, their 1 184 792 000 (one billion!). (…)
• Tim Berners-Lee launches the world wide web and changing the world.
• Nothing special, as far as I know. Maybe needed time to recover from the shock.
• A group of European researchers inventing MP3. This system allows further ease of sound files, and hence to reduce their digital expression to a minimum. The concept of COMPRESSION, which will later be applied to the pinned images (creating a jpeg) and moving images (mpeg). (…)
• A Mosaic, the most common of the first browsers with which you can roam the Web. Decisive moment. In practice, Berners-Lee invented the parallel digital world (the Web), but not taught the basics, and to wander it was to be a pioneer, like Indiana Jones, and then ACE in computer science. Browser — a set of services that would allow such a mutt, like me, to travel to a parallel world without any difficulty. (…)
Such a browser is no more. But there are other, fundamental. They are named Safari, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer. Without them, the Web still would be a pointless pastime for a small number of programmers who do not know what to do with time.
• In Seattle appears Kadabra is the name you nothing to say, and should be, because this is the first title Amazon. The idea was this: to organize a bookstore online, where you could buy all the books in the world. In practice, sitting at his Desk and not raising his ass from the chair, you turn the computer on, choose a book, pay, and you bring her home.
The idea was crazy, but man, vyistavki her obviously believed in a number that is useful to quote here, namely the index of the annual increase in the number of people using this service; last year, the index of the Web gave the following data: +2300%. Its founder Jeff Bezos not only changed the name of the site (in a year), but realized rather quickly that trading alone books silly. Right now on Amazon you can buy a car. Or iPhone. (…)
• After the photos comes the turn of movies. In digital form this time transferred audio and video. Commercially available first DVD. Philips again and again with the Japanese (Sony, Toshiba, Panasonic). Two years later, cassette decks comes to an end. Amen.
• Bill gates launches Windows 95, the operating system, which turns personal computers in a position to afford the household items like the ones produced by Apple, but much less expensive. No more excuse to postpone the introduction of the computer into the house. If you don’t have a computer, you just don’t understand something…
• There is eBay, too, in California. Market open to all where you can buy and sell anything. The first was a broken laser pointer.
• The Grand Finale. Two students of Stanford University (Sergey Brin and Larry page) twenty-four years of age run under the stupid search engine called Google. Today it is the most visited website in the world. When these guys were up to Google, websites were little more than 600 thousand, and they found a way for you to find a fraction of a second, all those which contain the recipe of lasagna and lay them out in front of you in order of importance. [Lasagna — just an example: the system worked, even if you’re looking for a replacement hip.]
It’s amazing what she’s doing now, when sites are more than a billion and two hundred million. Applying the metaphor of the XVI century, we can say that if the browsers you provide sailboats to float on the great sea of the Web, if portals such as Yahoo! suggested routes and warned of the dangers of this couple at once came up with a system to calculate longitude and latitude and made available to any Pathfinder world map, which shows all ports of the planet, ranked according to importance, convenience and commercial interest.
They could have told you which food would be better, in some low price pepper, and in some of the most beautiful brothels. You will not be surprised if I say that now their brand Google is the most influential in the world [whatever that means].
Even now, watching the enormous economic consequences, we see the presence of some spiritual progress, which will be decisive in the formation of a new emerging civilization.
Translated By A. Mirolyubovo
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