Opened the summit, the acting President of the Association “global energy” Alexander Ignatov. “Giving the prize “global energy” scientists all over the world and grants to young researchers, we encourage the development of energy technologies, he said. — We want the winners of our prize outlined the key technologies and trends that are crucial to energy development. The Association supports development aimed at improving its environmental performance and efficiency. Award already received 37 scientists from 12 countries, it has become a recognized brand in the field of scientific awards. Behind this long-term work of the Association, but it would not be possible without the support of business companies Gazprom, FGC UES, Surgutneftegaz. The project brings together a number of specialists, and this once again proves that science has no boundaries and unites all of humanity”.
“The most important goal of the summit is to unite the efforts of leading experts in the field of energy. In connection with climate change it is necessary to increase energy efficiency and greater use of renewable sources of energy”, — stressed in his speech, the Vice-President for research of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Oliver Kraft.
The challenges of the time
At the plenary session “Energy in the new technology cycle”, the participants discussed the new challenges that confront the global energy in the age of digitization, robots and artificial intelligence. The experts agreed that the transition to new technological way is impossible without modern, reliable, safe and affordable energy, the challenge of the transition to which is inextricably linked with the preservation and improvement of the quality of life of people.
The winner of the award “global energy”-2012, member International Committee to award, member of the IPCC awarded the Nobel peace prize 2007 Rodney Allam has focused its report on the relevance of reducing CO2 emissions. Although there is already cars that run on electricity and hydrogen, the use of traditional fuels in the next 20 years will not decrease, the expert believes. One reason for this — the inertia of state agencies and companies that do not perceive the problem of harmful emissions. In some countries there are incentives to invest in environmentally friendly energy production, but we must do much more, creating incentives for development of clean energy, to strengthen measures to reduce transport emissions. It is important, and international cooperation in this field.
“For different countries depending on their level of development of the energy strategy should differ, — said the winner of the award “global energy”-2018, head of the laboratory of problems of heat and mass transfer Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS Sergey Alekseenko. But a shared immediate goal should be the development of environmentally sound technologies, in particular, on the basis of combined-cycle plants and methods of deep processing of coal. A more distant perspective connected with renewable sources of energy.”
One of the reasons of active development of such technologies — the Paris agreement on climate change. Russia has not yet ratified it, planned to do it in 2020. However, a number of scientists believe that compelling scientific evidence that catastrophic climate changes are anthropogenic drivers of CO2 emissions, there is no evidence that these changes are the consequence, not the cause of rising temperatures. According to Sergey Alekseenko, climate change is connected rather with the cycles of solar activity, so more research is needed for this problem. However, this does not mean that the world needs to abandon the greater use of renewable energy sources, because they can be cheaper than even natural gas — especially hydrogeothermal and petrothermal energy, i.e. the use of geothermal heat at the level of 3 to 10 kilometers, where the temperature reaches 350 degrees. And it’s not science fiction: for example, in the United States by 2050, it is planned to reach 100 GW of geothermal sources is about half of the energy consumed in Russia.
By 2040, most in the energy mix will remain fossil sources, but renewable energy will develop very quickly
The prospect of wider use of renewable energy in his speech was supported by a member of the International Committee on award award “global energy”, the honorary Director General of the International Agency for renewable energies (IRENA) Adnan Amin. “Over the past 8 years we have seen a reduction in the cost of solar panels by 90 percent, he said. — The cost of wind energy has decreased by 30 percent and will continue to decline at the same pace. In the next few years almost everywhere renewable energy can compete with traditional energy sources. To de-carbonizing our economy in the future, we must create incentives for their development and to change the basis of our market policy.”
The energy industry is undergoing transformation. Innovations in alternative energy will significantly reduce costs. Thus, the efficiency of wind turbines in recent years is growing rapidly — only in 2018, the growth amounted to 7 percent. The introduction of artificial intelligence allows to improve the management of energy. The active processes of decentralization and democratization — for example, in Germany already more than 6 million people are consumers and producers of energy. They had the choice between the sources and suppliers of energy. But the most interesting — the decision to use renewable energy and take a large Corporation, such as Facebook, Apple, etc.
Rapidly growing renewable energy sources in developing countries, said the President of the International Committee awarding the “global energy”, the adviser of the Chairman of the group of leaders and high level experts on water and disaster under the UN Secretary General RAE Kwon Chung, Nobel peace prize-winning 2007. In 2017 in the energy system of China was added to the 53 GW of solar energy, which is equal to the total power capacity of the United States, growing energy demand in other developing countries.
“But for a qualitative leap in the use of renewable energy requires a paradigm shift — said RAE Kwon Chung. — It is necessary to connect the power grids of different areas, for instance, the Sahara desert or Central Asia, Kazakhstan, where large areas can be used for the production of wind energy and solar energy, with Korea, Japan, China. To use supernets those that already exist, for example, in China. Ideas such supercity was proposed by Chinese President XI Jinping, now China shows that the technology is ready to use. China may be an important player in the provision of guarantees for the purchase of electricity for the countries of Middle and Central Asia. A similar process at the transboundary level is already underway and in Europe.”
For different countries depending on their level of development of the energy strategy needs to vary
Speaking of new technologies that will have a big impact on the world energy development until the year 2040, experts noted small scale LNG, fracking, subsea production system and solar panels. In particular, it was indicated that small scale LNG can reduce the use of petroleum products in various sectors of consumption. Hydraulic fracturing is the main tool for the development of unconventional oil and gas reserves, and a subsea production system opened up the possibility of oil recovery deepwater and ultra-deepwater fields.
That the progress in photovoltaics (production of electric current in different materials under the action of light falling on them. — Ed.) is associated primarily with the development of new materials, said the Director of the Institute of lighting engineering of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Uli Lemmer.
“Over the past 8-10 years, photovoltaics has become a real success story in science, he said. — A whole multimillion dollar industry that is ensured by 2016, the storage capacity of more than 550 GW. There has been a rapid cost reduction in the industry, and result in 20-25 percent decrease in prices. Become breakthrough innovations such as semiconductors-perovskites (a rare mineral, which opened in the mid-NINETEENTH century in the Urals and named after the Russian statesman count Leo Perovsky. — Ed.). Now their market share is over 23 percent. Another key breakthrough — perovskites can be combined with silicon solar panels. This tandem technology, and these batteries can already produce. And in the future, any organic materials can be obtained much faster and cheaper using 3D printing and robots”.
Until 2040, energy consumption will increase almost twice — this forecast was voiced by a member of the International Committee awarding the “global energy”, the Secretary-General of the International energy forum Sansheng sun. “To achieve one of the Millennium goals is to provide access to energy for all, we need a lot more work. By 2040, most in the energy mix will still remain fossil sources of energy and the main source remains natural gas. But renewable sources will grow very quickly.”
This view was confirmed by all participants of the plenary meeting, answering questions from the audience: in the next 20 years the traditional energy sources will retain their positions. But the longer term for humanity in 100 years — will determine renewable energy, and more and more their importance will increase more and more.
Discussion summit participants continued the “round table” “Requirements for energy sustainable development” and “the Impact of a 4th industrial revolution in the energy sector”.
At the summit was the signing of the agreement between the Association “global energy” and the Technological Institute of Karlsruhe. At the ceremony, Alexander Ignatov said: “the Agreement marks the beginning of new cooperation. Today we took the first step in this direction by organizing the summit, the special unit of the Global Energy Youth Talks. We also see the development of cooperation through the pooling of our experts.” “We are very pleased that the Association organized the summit for the first time in our Institute, including for the first time — a youth program for our students, — said in his response, the Vice-President of the Institute for innovation and international cooperation Thomas Hirt. — Dialogue between scientists, engineers and students, with the participation of experts from 27 countries is a big plus for research, education and innovation”.
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