In Moscow alone hosted about 35 technoparks and technopolises (data permitting). The most famous of them is SKOLKOVO. Edition News. The property is understood together with the managing partner of the company “Financial and organizational consulting” (FC), Moses Formica, what is a Technopark, and for what it is.
The birthplace of the industrial parks
The very history of technology parks originated in the USA at Stanford University. After the Second world war, the University had difficulties with funding, to solve which helped rent. The University owned a large plot of land but to sell it could not. Then the Dean of the faculty of engineering, Professor Frederick Terman suggested to donate land for long term rent as an office Park. Moreover, tenants of the Park could be the only high-tech company. Thus the University began to receive income, and its graduates could find employment in the Park.
Later, the idea of Professor Terman was the beginning of Silicon valley (The Father of Silicon Valley). Today, residents of Silicon valley are the world’s giant companies such as Apple, Intel, Hewlett — Packard, General Electric, Google, and many others.
Technology parks and technopolises — it is a specialised property and land complexes in the city which have a formal status and provide favorable conditions for conducting scientific production and innovation activities for its residents. The Technopark residents can rent space at attractive prices, to tax incentives, access to equipment and services as well as Advisory support. Each has a Technopark specialization: micro-electronics, IT, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, biotechnology, nanotechnology and others, States on the investment portal of Moscow.
In the 70s the parks began to appear in Europe. Here then the usual techno parks were added, and the function of incubator technology business (manufacturing space, in which innovative companies could place their production). The first technology parks appeared in Russia in the 90s. As a rule, it was the division of universities or corporate campuses. The first Technopark in Russia can be called a Tomsk scientific-technological Park.
Combining innovative business
In Russia the concept of “Technopark” is somewhat vague. In the regulations contains three different definitions, not including the terms “industrial technology Park” and “Technopark of high technologies”, says the managing partner of the company “Financial and organizational consulting” (FOK).
But overall we can say that Technopark is a set of properties, established to support small and medium business in the sphere of high technologies, which is controlled by a single management company and may include land, office buildings, laboratory and industrial premises, objects of engineering, transport and social infrastructure.
A key feature of the Technopark is the concentration of small innovative companies in a single complex of real estate. In such a situation can be achieved synergy by locating equipment for collective use, certification, engineering, prototyping, support of exports and other items of interest to various residents. In addition, an important factor is the atmosphere of Technopark, active communication of its residents, even those without direct ties between themselves.
Accordingly, the key objective of the management of the company is creating such a creative environment and filling Technopark service functions. And then the object becomes a real demand from innovative businesses. So, there is an active filling areas target resident tenants, said the expert.
While the residents ‘ activity in the sphere of high technologies can be quite varied, including research, development and implementation of technologies in production. Generally, the longer the innovation chain are formed in the frame of technology Park, the more effective his work is.
According to the Ministry of communications, the third industrial parks in Russia specializiruetsya on IT, a quarter — on high-tech chemistry, 16% — on nanotechnology, 5% are in the Biomed, 2% in nuclear industry and space, 19% — to other spheres.
What should be the science city and how much it costs
Key requirements for the construction and placement of technology parks contained in the National standard. In particular, it is about the size of Technopark: the total area should be not less than 5 thousand sq m. the Park must have an isolated area not less than 3.5 ha. This area may be less than 3.5 hectares, if the density of the Technopark is greater than the minimum value set by the authorities of the subjects of the Russian Federation for the parks. On the territory of the Technopark should be the access point for all communications.
As for investment in such projects, their amount can be quite large scatter. First of all, the volume of financial investments is determined by three factors: the first is the scale of the Technopark; the second — the Technopark is created from scratch (new construction) or under it are used already existing objects; thirdly, the equipment that will be placed in the Park. The range of necessary investments — 50-500 million rubles, says
What are the pros and whether it will be popular
To date, Russia has created, according to various estimates, from 63 (data of the Ministry of industry in 2019) to 157 (data from the Association of clusters and technoparks in 2018) industrial parks. The difference in figures is due to the aforementioned vagueness of definitions, explains Moses Furdik.
The vast majority of technology parks are concentrated in major cities. But small cities can successfully create these objects. Here the key factor is the availability of scientific and technical capacity and/or demand for application development. Therefore, technology parks can function as science cities or in localities where there are large high-tech production (including in single-industry towns). Another thing is that in such cases the scale of Technopark is likely to be much smaller than in a large city, but its efficiency may be even higher.
The current popularity of technology parks, largely caused by the government’s policy in this direction, says Moses Furdik. Innovation is among the indicators for governors, there are a range of tools Federal support for the creation of industrial parks, including grants through the Ministry of economic development, industry and trade and the Ministry of communications. Supports this topic and the Ministry of education.
“As a result, more than half of Technopark — state, that is controlled by universities or by companies controlled by regional governments. Usually in these industrial parks profile residents have preferential rental rates”, — says the managing parter of FLC.
But there is a significant number of private industrial parks. Most of all, they are created either by developers of commercial real estate or large industrial enterprises with untapped area. Usually in such cases, potential residents must meet less stringent requirements, but may not be preferential rents.
Then for innovative companies to the fore as the advantages are availability of specialized and small space, convenient location, expanded opportunities for cooperation with other residents or with a large enterprise — organizer of the Technopark, as well as equipment for collective use, and other additional services. And it is interesting that many of the measures of state support apply to non-state parks, what is often not fully know even the management companies.
As for the benefits for residents of the city, then this is an additional high-skilled jobs and tax revenues, increasing opportunities for entrepreneurial and innovative activities, improving the image of the city and retention of promising young people.
In the coming years can be expected as the emergence of new parks and expansion of existing ones. “On the horizon of 7-10 years can be expected approximately doubling their number. This is facilitated by increased government support and the ongoing restructuring of major industries (the release areas through automation and relocation of some functions to outsourcing)”, — the expert believes.
Also the growth of technology parks will contribute to a growing awareness of the small innovative companies the fact that placement in specialized complexes increases their effectiveness and attractiveness to highly skilled employees.
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