Timothy John Berners-Lee, the purebred old English (surname “Lee” is derived from old English), and the son of scientists. His parents Conway Berners-Lee and Mary Lee woods were mathematicians. Moreover, love for computer technology Tim is also hereditary — both parents worked on one of the first in the world of computers “mark I”. However, before to impact the world, Tim Berners-Lee had to change many jobs and occupations.
The child, Tim went to school in Wandsworth and then at the Royal College of Okhotskom University. There happened to him an interesting story — along with another they are “impractical used the computers at the University” (some argue that friends have organized a hacker attack, others that they were just playing video games). The result is both banned the use of computers at the University that inspired Berners-Lee to create their own computer. As the processor he picked up the Motorola 6800, instead of the monitor TV, and the keyboard Tim borrowed a broken calculator.
In General, although the interest of Tim to computers was high, Ostrogski University in 1976, he eventually graduated with a degree “Physics”. Apparently, in the 70-ies of the last century it was the closest thing to computers.
Immediately after University, Tim Berners-Lee moved to Dorset, where he began working in the company “Plessey Telecommunications Ltd”, doing distributed transactions. This period of his life very little is known — the life he led a very ordinary and “on eyes did not come across”.
For a long time at first, however, he too, did not stay, and after two years went to “D. G Nash Ltd”, where I wrote utility for printers and even created something like an operating system with multitasking.
First appearance in Geneva
But a year later it happened a fateful event, Berners-Lee came to the laboratory on nuclear issledovaniyam CERN (in Geneva, Switzerland), where at first he worked only six months. There he was a consultant for program support, but also created a system of work with documents Enquire, which used a random Association. Later it was useful for the development of the world wide web, but in 1982 Tim left CERN and worked in another company.
The return happened at CERN in 1984, Berners-Lee was invited to work on the system “FASTBUS”. In parallel, he developed the RPC — self system remote procedure call, which, roughly speaking, allows you to refer to functions or procedures in another computer, and finished Enquire — that it eventually turned into the world wide web.
Generally, Berners-Lee not that was going to change the world. He just worked for the benefit of his employer, simultaneously realizing some of your own projects, which, again, was created to simplify and automate the work. About the same has having WWW. And this is to tell you more.
The creation of the world wide web
The concept of “world wide web” (World Wide Web, www) and Internet are often confused, although it is not the same thing. The Internet as a network — do was created by the us military long before WWW. But the world web is a project that emerged in Europe, within the walls of Geneva laboratory for nuclear research CERN, and that it was Berners-Lee. Although, of course, is the creation of the WWW has provoked a furious pace of development of the Internet.
So what is the world wide web? This phrase Berners-Lee described the scheme cross-references in hypertext documents. If it is easier to say is a web page with links. That is, each web page, this is created with a special language HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language — hypertext markup language) document. This document has a unique reference to a URI/URL a Uniform Resource Identifier (uniform resource identifier), and access it with a special program — the browser — the HTTP Protocol (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol transfer hypertext documents).
What you are reading is a web page, or hypertext document. It has a unique address or URL. And at ferra.ru main page of our web site which has a link to this and many other web documents, which can be another article or news. Using markup here there are pictures, headlines, and, of course, links.
Pages refer to each other — and as a result of their invisible connection, like the intertwined, like a web. That is why later came the name “world wide web”, but initially Berners-Lee created the whole system only for internal needs of the CERN — to make it easier to store, catalog, and search for information. A sort of replacement for the library.
What does Steve jobs
However, even more interesting that worked on the WWW Berners-Lee is on the computers by NeXT — I’m sure some readers that the name seemed familiar. The NeXT company to manufacture computers based on its own operating system, which was founded by Steve jobs after he was kicked out of Apple. A significant role in the creation of hypertext was played by the software of NeXT computers — in particular, there was a WYSIWYG editor (What You See Is What You Get — what you see is what you get). It’s funny that with the development of the WWW about the concept of WYSIWYG will forget. In fact, it is the convenience and functionality of the operating system NeXTStep was inspired by Tim.
Hypertext “library” was developed so that it could access a computer located at the CERN. For this and needed a computer network — in particular, the Internet. Although Berners-Lee perfected the WWW to 93-94 year, the year of the birth of the world wide web is considered to be 1989.
In this case, the first site (in the form in which we know and understand the sites) appeared only in August 1991, the world’s first web server. The website has placed himself Berners-Lee at http://info.cern.ch/. Now he looks at the time, but backup is also available.
Browser for reading web pages, Berners-Lee also wrote himself (as the web server, however, also is such a program that turns a simple computer into a Network node, which can be accessed by an HTTP request). A browser called simple and uncomplicated “WorldWideWeb”, and it was a WYSIWYG editor, and everything worked on the operating system NeXTStep.
In 1994 Tim Berners-Lee founded the world wide web consortium (W3C), which today develops and oversees the standards used in the framework of the WWW.
The ideology and consequences
With the development of the WWW Tim Berners-Lee saw his brainchild as it is free for all. By the way, the W3C doesn’t even charge for the use of its inventions and do not patent any standards.
Basic principles of WWW according to its Creator such:
The ability to edit information is no less important than the ability to simply explore WWW
Computers can be used for “background processes” to help people work together
Every aspect of the Network needs to work as a web, not a hierarchy.
Scientists-computer scientists have not only technical responsibilities, but also moral.
However, in the real world turned out not so perfect. Yes, the web server can “raise” any man — and that’s good, but the address of the web server’s IP address, that is, a set of four three digit numbers separated by a dot. Remember that uncomfortable. Agree “ferra.ru” it is easier to remember and type in the address bar of the browser is more convenient than any 18.104.22.168. Moreover, if the web site suddenly move to a different web server — the physical address will change and all the resources will be available at the previously posted links.
So instead of the IP address a domain name is used — simple character combinations. But on a dedicated server stores compliance data domain name to IP address. This system is called Domain Name System (DNS — domain name system), and servers — the DNS servers.
Today, most DNS servers are in the USA, which violates the idea of decentralization and the Tim Berners-Lee is not very happy about it. Moreover, since the WWW is increasingly cluttered with technology and absolutely not similar to those simple pages with links, that was originally, suppliers of these technologies are more privileged than ordinary users. Berners-Lee spoke on the subject, and it is this quote I want to finish the article about it:
Monopoly on the Internet services is formed in the standard way: first, people are offered a convenient way to do anything online for free. Search the Internet and on the map, on PC and on mobile, chat mail, chat and social networks, to watch the video and post your, plan business and vacation, to work with documents directly from your browser… If any analogues of popular services is not enough, then they simply buy other companies, not allowing the latter to grow into a large holding company and to compete.
At some point, everything became familiar to many is on the server the only company that knows about each person and their interactions too much. Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, Apple, Facebook… Before you think that I use their products, they use your data, share Internet between themselves and begin to dictate more stringent conditions. Log in to Google to leave a comment on YouTube. Allow tracking, supply the information about your profile and friends list…_
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