The Russians could hardly manage their money. According to statistics, almost 40 percent have no savings, and 48 percent complain that you never will get a decent salary. With the Russians it is difficult to call a financial illiterate, according to this indicator, Russia takes the ninth place among the G20. Probably, the problem lies in the inability of the Russians to preserve and create additional sources of income. “” the financial supermarket “” tells how to not be dependent on wages.

Rosstat data indicate that the average salary of Russians in 2018 amounted to 43 445 rubles per month. However, how to tell the Russians themselves, for “happy” and “worthy” life, they money is still not enough. For worthy life Russians need at least 50 thousand rubles, and for “happy” — twice — 105 thousand. Obviously, for a “happy” life one paycheck to the Russians is clearly not enough, and therefore requires an additional source of income.

In developed countries, citizens often independently form a financial safety cushion, putting aside funds for a rainy day or old age. A they use various kinds of tools that help to obtain additional funds — this income is called passive income in a personal budget does not depend on employment or other external factors. However, many Russians understand that without extra money to feel comfortable in retirement will be difficult, so looking at various ways of savings.

According to the analytical center of the NAFI, the most reliable method of investment, the Russians still consider investing in real estate (44 percent), on the second place — investments in gold (25 per cent), third place for in foreign currencies (24 percent). The top 5 also presents Bank deposits and rouble cash. In this real estate by the Russians as perceived and most profitable way to invest (37%), in second place — the purchase of foreign currency (18 percent) rounded out the top three Bank Deposit (15 per cent).

“” together with the experts of the financial supermarket, “” chose various options for investing personal funds. Offers vary depending on the level of risk, size of investment, complexity of investments and the level of potential return. Spoiler: no registration brokerage account to achieve a balance between reliability investments and the yield will be heavy.

To achieve financial independence should start with the most simple and intuitive tools. The most common and reliable among Russians it is considered a Bank Deposit. Invested in the Bank money is insured by the state Agency for Deposit insurance (DIA) will return 1.4 million rubles in the case of the collapse of a financial institution. The complexity of management of these funds is minimal — you only need to choose a Bank, the period and several additional features like the capitalization of interest and the possibility of a partial withdrawal.

However, Bank deposits cannot be considered impenetrable protection for the money. First, the Bank may revoke the licence and all funds above the insured amount likely to be lost. Second, there is a risk that funds will not be returned in principle due to the fact that under the guise of the contribution of the employees of the Bank to impose different product.

Thirdly, the employees can’t be trusted until the end, there are cases when the Bank took the money on Deposit by cash, because of what the insurance did not extend to depositors ‘ money. Finally home and smooth the risk to the money — is inflation. Bank deposits help to save, but seldom give the opportunity to earn. According to Rosstat, in 2018, the inflation rate was 4.3 percent, i.e., if the rate of Deposit was at 6 percent, then real income would have amounted to little more than a cent. At the end of April the average rate on deposits was 7.5 percent. The mobility of money in the account for the minimum — not to lose a cent, will have to keep the money until the end of the term.

Bank alternative contribution can serve as a Deposit cards with interest on the balance of the account is the option for those to whom money may be required urgently, with a small income to still succeed. Interest is charged monthly and rates range from 5 to 7 percent per annum. The risks are the same as for the Deposit, only the Bank can change the interest on the balance at any time.

Another change to the classic Deposit — a savings account. Here the rules are similar to Deposit, the only difference is the ability at any time to close, but, unlike the Deposit, all interest and accordingly the income is not going anywhere. Rates from savings accounts are similar to interest on the balance on plastic cards. This option is useful for those who want to save up for some money — they are separate and not an eyesore, in addition to such accounts, you can set auto-refill. The risks of such Deposit, and cards with interest on the balance.

The entry threshold for all of the banking options small and on average amounts to 10 thousand rubles. However, even these tools require vigilance — always worth reading agreement with the Bank very carefully, so you do not wonder at the decline of profitability or the emergence of a servicing fee, if not design unexpected products.

The transition from purely banking to the stock market can be considered investing in precious metals and mutual funds. In the first case, the Bank proposes to open the so-called depersonalized metal account (OMS) is the equivalent of the Deposit, but instead of currency it will be the volume of precious metal that has been bought. The threshold for entry into OMS depends on the precious metal, the most popular are gold, silver, platinum and palladium.

Risk OMS a bit, but they are essential. The first is the dependence on stock prices, if the price will go down, the owner of OMS will start to lose money if up and start earning. Actually, OMS is the exchange’s by-product, where the intermediary between the client and exchange is the Bank, which takes an additional cost to the Commission for operations with the account and service fees account will have to deduct when calculating the yield. Finally, the contract of service of OMS with the Bank puts a lot of restrictions — to sell the metal only to the Bank where the account is opened, CBOs and only at the prices (quotations) at which willing to buy the Bank, and this additional loss. Another minus — taxes, income from MHI will have to pay the state 13 percent.

Metal account is convenient for those who want to understand the complexities of the markets, however, confidence in precious metals. With all the cons of working with this tool, the discovery of OMS in palladium at the beginning of 2018 would bring in a very good yield — the scarcity of metal, as well as record demand has pushed the price to a historic high, which is would pay for the cost of compulsory medical insurance and would make good money. Gold is traditionally considered a safe asset, which increases when markets fall.

As close as possible to the stock market the tool without direct registration on the exchange is mutual funds (mutual Funds). Pai is the share of the investor in the investment Fund. The owner of a share (shareholder) transfers your money in trust management company (MC), which deals with investment — analysis of markets, develop strategies to ensure that the money earn income to shareholders. The investor again avoids the difficulties on the exchange and headaches in collecting investment portfolio — these functions will take over UK. As in the case of OMS, to shareholders to avoid income tax, it will have to pay when selling shares.

The advantage of shares over Bank deposits is a potentially high yield, the disadvantage is the risk. No one can guarantee that those assets that have grown in the past, will continue to grow in the future. That is why the easiest way to invest is to diversify, that is creating the broadest portfolio of investments in different industry sectors, indices and commodities — it allows to reduce the risks of a strong depreciation of the portfolio. Mutual funds allow you to invest in a wide profile of exchange-traded products from specific shares of specific companies to the broad indexes, or entire sectors of the economy. The entry threshold in mutual Funds, small — to buy a share in the Fund may from 1000.

Some investment products have appeared because of the complexity of development of exchange tools, allowing them and there was a demand. However, the development of information technologies, the penetration of high speed Internet and the proliferation of smartphones has turned the stock market into a simple mobile application. Now to open a brokerage account literally in a few clicks on the smartphone, and the trading platform is adapted for the average person, not a professional trader.

In Russia exchange-traded products are gaining popularity, which has spurred the collapse of the ruble and falling interest rates on deposits, forcing the wealthy Russians to seek higher-yielding instruments. Tracking the trend is the dynamics of the number of brokerage accounts that are registered on the Moscow exchange. According to the main trading platform of Russia for 2018, the stock market came 700 thousand private investors, and their total number reached two million.

The main providers for the exit of the Russians to the exchange were: Tinkoff Bank (285,8 thousand), Sberbank (284,3 thousand), BCS (61.4 thousand), Otkrytie (60 thousand) and VTB Bank (46.1 thousand). Representatives of the Moscow stock exchange believe that the increase in the number of new accounts is associated including with tax incentives available to private investors. However, the level of involvement of Russians to the exchange is minimal. For example, in the United States in April 2018 on stock exchange assets, said 55 percent of respondents. 34 per cent of them talked about real estate, 26 percent owned shares of 17 precious metals, 15 percent held in Bank accounts, 6 percent invested in bonds, 3 per cent claimed to have invested in other products.

The threshold of the entrance to the stock exchange minimum to trading, with a symbolic 100 rubles in the account — the shares of some companies may be sufficient (for example, stocks of infrastructure giant rosseti traded in the region of 1 ruble per share, while shares of gas monopoly “Gazprom” — around 160 rubles per security). However, to go public with the very very minimal amount not worth the potential profitability will be miserable and that can “eat” the brokerage fee.

You should start with a relatively small amount, for example, 30 thousand rubles — this will be enough to gather a small portfolio of securities of Russian issuers. However, it is not necessary to buy all at once — leaving on exchange, you should understand that these funds are not insured by anyone, and therefore, they can completely lose and we need to be mentally prepared. Secondly, to go on exchange should have a clear purpose — it will help to avoid pointless and stupid loss in the first stage. And finally, keep care and do not be lazy to count all cons: commissions from the transaction up to potential taxes.

Novice investors tend to recommend the bond market, as it is believed that this is the least risky and intuitive tool similar to Bank deposits. Buying the bond, the owner of the paper actually gives the Issuer (company or government) in debt under a specific percentage. In the case of the Russian stock market the most reliable bonds are considered to be paper of the Russian government, state companies, regions, and blue chip.

Each paper is issued for a specified period, after which the money will be repaid is the maturity of the bonds. While the paper is in the portfolio, the holder receives the coupon income, in other words, the interest on the loan paid by the Issuer. Usually payments are made every six months, but there are exceptions. The entry threshold in bonds of small, standard par value of one security — 1000 rubles, but on the market you can find paper and lower cost. The yield of the bond depends on the Issuer: the riskier the business, the typically higher yield. The low-risk portfolio of Russian bonds now can bring up to 10 per cent per annum, well above the average rates on deposits.

Another tool with a low risk Exchange Traded Funds (foreign exchange traded funds, ETFs). In structure they resemble mutual Funds, but unlike shares, ETFs produce their own paper, which are tied either to industry or to the stock index, or to something else. ETFs are traded like ordinary stocks, and the income depends solely on the growth in the value of the selected Fund. The yield of the Fund depends on the behavior of stocks that are part of the selected ETFs. For example, if the money is invested in ETF high-tech companies in the U.S., the cost of securities the Fund will depend on the stock prices of Apple, Amazon, Intel, etc.

The main advantage of ETFs is independence from a single subsidence a particular stock, that is, the fall of the stock price of one company will not be able to pull the entire ETF, and this means that the risks of this tool are small. In the case of ETF axiom “the lower the risk, the lower the yield” does not always work, since the tool itself is relatively young. The first ETF was launched in 1990 on the Toronto Stock exchange, only three years later, the counterpart appeared in the United States and in the Russian market the first ETF earned in 2013 alone. Available statistics show that ETF is one of the most reliable and profitable instruments, as tied to a broad index or a stock portfolio. Historical data prove that the indices in the long term grow — so this is the perfect tool for those who are willing to wait patiently for their profit.

The yield of the instrument depends on the selected funds, such as ETFs, linked to equities of American companies of the IT sector in 2018 is up 14 percent and the ETF in relation to the shares of the largest German companies over the same period, on the contrary declined by 9.74 percent.

Mance bonds, and ETF, to comprehend the most familiar and common tool — stock companies will not be so difficult. The value of a stock is determined by the market, investors of all kinds (from large investment funds with multi-billion budgets to ordinary citizens) react to the background information, the performance of the company and either buy or sell securities. Usually, positive news helps increase the value of shares, negative — Vice versa. The trust shares the previously mentioned “blue chips.

For those wishing to become long-term investor is strongly advised to learn to understand the financial reports of the company. And news about the meetings of the Board of Directors in the future will no longer seem boring and unnecessary to anyone. Earn how to lose businesses very simply, for example, in 2018, the most profitable share of the Russian market were the shares of liquefied natural gas producer NOVATEK, they have grown in the price 67,04 percent.

The main quality of a successful investor is knowing when to get out of the asset, locking in the yield. This is well illustrated by the same example with a stake in NOVATEK, which after the announcement of possible sanctions from the US dipped by six per cent from 1121 ruble per share February 12 to 1057 rubles — 18 March, and the rebound did not contribute even information about the stock repurchase, which usually supports the price, and the payment of record dividends by the company.

In addition to stocks, bonds, funds and ETFs, on the exchange you can find a huge variety of other instruments — options, futures, and other derivatives — i.e. derived from the underlying asset (oil, gold or stocks) financial instruments. Derivatives give the right to obtain the goods not immediately in the property, and the opportunity to get it at a certain price in a certain period of time. A vivid example — futures contracts on oil supply, where the price varies depending on the month of delivery.

But derivatives are complex products, which must be constantly monitored. Risks of these instruments is high, and the attempt to make them more like a part time trader part time. Derivatives are unlikely to be suitable as a “safe Harbor” for peaceful growth of capital.

If the exchange is impossible to understand, in the presence of a sufficient amount, you should pay attention to the alternative. One of these may be, Kreuzlingen — that is, lending to entrepreneurs and small companies. This method of investment is still not very popular in Russia, however, judging by the creation of special platforms and exit on this market of large players such as Sberbank, Alfa Bank and OZON, cradleing may occupy a separate niche as an alternative to traditional investment products.

The entry threshold varies from 10 to 500 thousand rubles, choosing the right support company remains with the client. Profitability as a result of such investment may exceed 35 percent, but risks are high — companies can simply go bankrupt, which means that the money will not return.

But warranty will definitely be those who prefer investment or life insurance (coli or CNM) is a Bank instrument that represents a mix of ordinary accident insurance and investments. Paid for the policy the funds managed by the company, to generate income, part of which, upon successful investing is cautioned by the holder of the policy. The yield of the instrument is no guarantee, so in the worst case at the end of the term of the policy the client will receive the investment, discounted at the rate of inflation. In addition, some companies have a monthly payment of contributions, which also makes this tool is questionable in terms of the Outlook for investments and a stable income.

For old-fashioned citizens of the Russian government has created its own financial instrument paper “national bonds”. In fact it is an analogue of the exchange-traded bonds (OFZ-n), only calculated on ordinary citizens who are not willing to spend time and effort on the development of stock exchange terminals, applications, and open brokerage accounts. To purchase such securities at branches of state banks VTB, Sberbank, Promsvyazbank and Bank Mail. And more recently, the conditions of purchase become more attractive.

The first releases you can buy with a minimum investment of 30 thousand rubles, while spending on the banking Commission. Now, however, the Ministry of Finance has made the conditions for “national bonds” as comfortable as possible, the entry threshold will be reduced to 10 thousand rubles, and the fee the Ministry will take on the Russians is just to go to the Bank and to purchase securities. The yield on OFZ-n slightly higher than the current rates on deposits — if you hold the entire maturity of the bond (3 years), the yield with the Commission in favor of the Bank will be 7.91 percent per annum. Probably realizing this, the Ministry of Finance and decided to take the Commission upon himself to preserve the attractiveness of the instrument.

Those who have the ability to invest large sums, you should look to invest in microfinance institutions (MFIs). The entry threshold in this tool starts from 500 thousand rubles, the yield of 11 per cent and can exceed 20 percent per annum. The risk of one — in the event of bankruptcy or revocation of the license of the MFI — the money will be lost. Insurance on such investments is no, despite the desire of MFIs to focus clients on what they operate under the license of the Bank of Russia. This status is required for official work in principle, however, does not mean that the state will return the money of investors in case of bankruptcy.

Exchange opens for those who want to earn a lot of opportunities. One of the most expensive tools are Eurobonds — bonds denominated in foreign currency (usually dollars or euros). Standard entry threshold is 100 thousand dollars, but there are options and cheaper, in addition, some brokers may “split” one paper for a few to make them more accessible to private investors. With all the advantages of bonds from Eurobonds, there is a risk of growth of the ruble, but in the current circumstances it seems unlikely. The yield from such securities are denominated in the currency of the issue, it will also have to pay the tax.

If a similar investment was expensive, perhaps, to understand the intricacies of investment is not worth at all — every large Bank has a program of “individual proposals”. We are talking about private banking is a special service and offering a wide range of financial services consulting, asset management (as of money, for example, and real estate), legal services, for example, tax optimisation and so on.

As a rule, every large Bank to get the premium status is the entry threshold, however, about such suggestions customers may simply not know, so you should contact financial institutions and ask what the Bank can offer. Banks do not publicly disclose clear parameters, as they may vary depending on the broad profile of parameters: duration of cooperation of Bank with the client, the amount that the customer spends through the Bank — each Bank has its own system for working with such clients.

The development of technology has made the world of big Finance a lot closer than it may seem at first glance. Now to feel like a financial tycoon in just a couple of clicks, and ways to start to save and increase their own savings, a great many, all you need is financial discipline and little desire to learn new things.

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