“The birth of a new world is not far off” — declared in 1776, known in history as “the godfather of the United States,” in fact, the ideologist of the American revolution, author of the famous work “the Age of reason”, dedicated to US, British philosopher Thomas Paine (Thomas Paine). Indeed, British experts write in an article published in the next issue of “the Economist” (Economist), America has then seen itself as a country of all the new and advanced as Europe in the view of Americans, stuck in the past. And most evident it was in the technology sector — because today the US accounts for 15 of the 20 most expensive IT companies in the world, Europe is only one. And Silicon valley and is now a meeting place of brilliant ideas with smart money. In addition, America first has become a platform for heated debate on how to make IT industry giants to work in the public interest. Today, the US Congress chastises magnates technology industry for violations of privacy committed by their companies. Moreover, recently voiced such revolutionary ideas, some IT giants, such as Facebook (Facebook), — the call came from an influential Senator Elizabeth Warren (Elizabeth Warren), which, incidentally, will take part in the presidential election in 2020.
But now, as the British experts believe, to understand the direction in which today is the movement’s most influential global industry, you should carefully look not to the traditional directions — in the direction of Washington and California, and to Brussels and Berlin. According to “the Economist”, in violation of all established in the history of the development of technoindustry rules America today is undecided, whereas the European Union operates. Last week, Google (Google) was fined $ 1.7 billion for not following the principles of fair competition in the advertising market. Moreover, the EU aimed at a speedy introduction of laws to protect copyrights in digital information. For example, the user of the music service “Spotify” (Spotify) has appealed to the European Union with a complaint of gross violations of Antimonopoly legislation by the company “EPL” (Apple). Today, the EU is working to develop new technological doctrine, which should help to solve the problem of transferring individual users control over their personal information and income from it and forcing technology companies to competition. If the new doctrine will take root, then this will benefit millions of users speed up the development of the economy and will limit the actions Microsoft%giants whose power far exceeds their level of responsibility.
“The economist” reminds that Western regulators have already had the experience of an open confrontation with technology companies regarding violations of the Antimonopoly legislation in the 60-ies with the “ay-bi-em” (IBM) and in the 90s with “Microsoft” (Microsoft). But today’s giants blame not just in the exorbitant price-fixing and the suppression of competition, but in more serious violations, such as the undermining of democracy (through the deliberate spreading of false information) and is a flagrant violation of individual rights (through unlawful gathering of personal data). With the spread of artificial intelligence, dramatically increases the demand for information, connection, data is the new valuable resource. According to British experts, remains unresolved a number of key questions: who controls the data and how the revenues should be shared. Almost all of the world expert community is standing only one — such a serious issues to decide is not involved in scandals, mark Zuckerberg…
By itself, the thesis that today the European Union takes the lead in these matters, most business managers seem at least strange, because Europe is perceived entrepreneurial “desert” and “spiritual home” of the bureaucracy. However, according to in London, in fact, Europe has influence, and new ideas. The big five tech giants — al “fabet” (Alphabet), “Amazon” (Amazon), Apple, Facebook and Microsoft are on average sell a quarter of its goods and services in this part of the world. The European Union and in the world today is the largest economic bloc, therefore, adopted in the EU, the standards are often simply copied by developing countries. European countries, the past experience of dictatorial regimes, especially vigilant against the possible interference in private life, so the influence of the lobby on the actions of regulators is much weaker than, for example, in the United States, and the courts better understand the realities of the modern economy. According to the experts, the limited number of technology companies, and helps Europe to adopt an objective position.
The basis of the European approach today is to accept those decisions which are clearly articulated, what to do, tech companies should not be. The Europeans are not yet planning to introduce limits on the revenue of the IT companies and regulate them as utilities, which they could transform into a hulking, unchallenged monopoly. Experts note that in Europe, do not even consider the idea of a disaggregation of teggiano, not seeing any sense in this, because these new “kids” as they are designated, “Hasbabes” (“Facebabies”) or “Gullets” (“You”) very quickly, again, simply would have taken a dominant position due to the effect of network benefits. European doctrine, the idea of developers, should combine the two approaches. One of them stems from the culture of the European countries that, despite all the differences between them, tend to the protection of private space. The second uses the legal right of the EU to promote competition.
The first approach States that a person has sovereignty over information about himself: he has the right of access to it, can make changes and decide who has the right to use it. This is the essence of the General rules on data protection (General Data Protection Regulation, the GDPR), the principles of which are already copied by many countries. The next step will be to ensure interoperable compatibility between services so that users can easily change providers, choosing companies that offer more favorable contract terms, or treat their customers with a more ethical. Imagine that you can transfer your friends list and posts in a social network Asbook (Acebook), which has higher standards of protection of personal data than Facebook, and share with you their revenue from advertising. One of the prototypes this is a British scheme called “Open banking” (Open Banking), allowing banking customers to share data about their buying habits, regular payments, etc. with other providers of banking services. According to the recommendations of the British government, technology companies need to be open.
The second professed in Europe, the principle is that companies can’t violate the principles of fair competition, that is, are obliged to provide equal opportunities to all companies operating on their platform. The European Union has banned the company “Google” to conduct unfair competition with Internet stores that appear in search results, and browsers-rivals, using the operating system “Android” (Android). According to the proposal of Germany, the dominant company in the market must share with competitors the collective impersonal data so that the economy functioned normally, and were ruled by a few giants, single-handedly accumulate information. For example, all transport companies must have access to information of the app “Uber” (Uber) on the structure of road traffic. In Germany, new legislation was passed preventing the absorption of start-UPS companies-giants. After all, these startups in the future and can make them a strong competition.
The EU approach to this issue offers a new perspective on consumer control of personal data and how these data are monetized. When the user can change the operator, it promotes competition and thereby expands the range and improves the quality of services. The result is an economy which is ruled by the consumer, information and power are dispersed. Of course, such a model hardly came to the taste and the technological giants. They would have to share part of their profits with the users (revenue of the “big five” last year amounted to 150 billion pounds) and to invest more in order not to lose their market share.
With all the obvious advantages of the European approach to the IT industry, according to British experts, there are certain risks: first, most likely, will be difficult to achieve a real inter-operational compatibility between the companies. The free exchange of data should not take precedence over the protection of personal information, and in this matter for the joint solution of the problems of the European bureaucrats will have to rely on companies, many of which are American. Another risk is that the European model is not used anywhere else outside Europe, and it can be a technological desert island, cut off from the mainstream. Large companies will be reluctant to split up its business in the European and American divisions. However, apparently, America is now leaning towards a European approach in this industry. For example, in California a law was passed similar to the European General regulations on data protection. The Europeans are approaching the problem of regulating tech giants in favor of consumers, not the state or covert monopolies. If Europe succeeds, Americans should without hesitation adopt this system — even she, born to leave their Old world ancestors.
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